-- Wave particle duality. Every particle (big or small) has both wave and particle properties. Photon is a wave and it is also a particle. Similarly electron also has both wave and particle properties. Bigger the particle, lessor visible are the wave properties.
-- Uncertainty principle. For particles in realm of quantum physics, one cannot determine position and momentum simultaneously. More you try to determine its precise position, the more uncertain its momentum becomes and vice versa. So particles are generally referred in terms of "probability". Therefore particle is considered as cloudy and particle will have different probability of occurance within this cloud. This is described as "wave function" which gives probabilitistic values. SchrÃ¶dinger equations are one of the famous functions.
-- Quantum Numbers: There are some "constants" in above mentioned function. These are called quantum numbers. Each type of particle has unique distinct quantum number. No two particle can have same quantum number. They define energy level (like energy level of Bhor model of electrons), angular momentum, impact of magnetic field and spin of particle.
Quantum entanglement. You must heard about Einstein saying spooky action at a distance. He was referring to this.
It seems that 2 or more particles are correlated in some way that outcome of one instantly affects another. This happens fast, really fast, even faster than speed of light I.e. instantly. It can happen across vast distances, even separated many km apart. This has been proved many times.
Quantum physics has lots of sub branches. You may have heard of Higg's I.e. God particle. This comes from quantum field theory and its standard model. "Standard model" is like periodic table of quantum physics.
I have tried to give a brief on what to expect in quantum physics. It is vast and people have spent lifetime learning one branch within this. Hope this helps.
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