Program World Model.xls - Simulation INICOS, ANGSIZ and BNGSIZ

The program World Model.xls is a simulation pakage written in EXCEL to simulate the Fortran Programs INICOS, ANGSIZ, BNGSIZ etc written by Phillip Helbig, Hamburg Observatory, in Sept 1995.
For a copy of those Fortran programs select: or
To get a copy of the EXCEl program select: World
When you open the program you will observe three buttons: INICOS, ANGSIZ and BNGSIZ.
Each of those buttons is used to excute one of three programs.
The order is important: First INICOS, next ANGSIZ and finally BNGSIZ.

Map1 consists of three parts:

Visual Basic does not use the COMMON Block approach. Instead the parameters are declared Public. That means all the subroutines can address those "Common" variables.

Test Bed results

Lambda Omega K Zmax WMtype Model name T
-0.100.28-0.82 2
-0.101.10 0.00 3
-0.101.50 0.40 4
0.00 1.28 0.28 5Misner-Thorne-Wheeler
0.00 0.00-1.00 7Milne
0.00 0.28-0.72 8
0.00 1.00 0.00 9Einstein-de Sitter
0.72 0.00-0.28 10
0.72 0.10-0.18 11
1.00 0.00 0.00 12de Sitter
0.72 0.28 0.00 13Flat
2.20 0.67 1.87 14Lemaitre 0.0120
2.20 0.66 1.86*17Eddington0.0032
2.20 0.656321 1.856321*18Bounce -0.00000026
1.20 0.00 0.00*19de Sitter
The first 3 columns show the parameters Lambda, Omega and K. However this are not Cosmological Constants Lambda, Omega and K as part of the Friedmann equation. See The equations but the density parameters Omega(L), Omega(M) and Omega(K). See: Density parameter
The current interpretation is that the sum of those three (four) parameters is 1. That means Omega(L) + Omega(M) + Omega(K) = 1
In the Fortran program the following equation is used: K = OMEGA + LAMBDA - 1. See program INICOS.
The density equivalent is: Omega(M) + Omega(L) - Omega(K) = 1
The subroutine QQ uses the equation QQ = OMEGA * V ^ 3 - K * V ^ 2 + LAMBDA
What this means is that the sign of the parameter K is opposite of the standard implementation.

WMtype = 13 Flat

WMtype = 13 represents the current most accepted model. In that case OMEGA and LAMBDA are greater than zero and K = 0. That means Omega(L) + Omega(M) = 1 and Omega(K) = 0.
The most current accepted density values are: Omega(L) = 0.72 Omega(M) = 0.28 and Omega(K)= 0 Flat Universe. See specific SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP1) OBSERVATIONS: POWER SPECTRA AND WMAP-DERIVED PARAMETERS Figure 14, page 15.

The parameter EPS and WMtype = 17

The parameter EPS is used to distinquish between the WMtype models 14, 17 and 18.
The FORTRAN program uses EPS = 0.000001. To test typeWM = 17 you need LAMBA = 2.2 and OMEGA = .656321 (T = 0.00000026) or OMEGA = .656322 (T = 0.00000063). In the case of WMtype = 17 Zmax is greater than zero.

IMO WMtype 17 is an artificial model. WMtype is the boundary between the WMtypes 14 and 18.
To calculate this boundary a new subroutine BOUNDARY is used. This subroutine calculates the omega value of this boundary without the parameter EPS.

When you test typeWM for the above mentioned values you will see that the values for ZMAX and for Zrange do not match. That means the program INICOS is in error. For WMtype = 17 ZMAX should be 1 smaller.
In the latest issue of the program this error is solved.

A similar problem also exists for WMtype = 15. There are also two indications of WMtype = 12. Maybe one of those should be WMtype = 16.

The parameter TINY

The parameter TINY is used to test the results of the calls to the subroutine QQ(V).
In 4 cases the following code is used G=SQRT(QQ(V)) and then a test is done if G is smaller than TINY.
The problem is that QQ(V) can be smaller than zero.
The following code is sufficienct : IF QQ(V) < 0 then display ERROR = 11 and RETURN (Exit sub)
Specific the RETURN is missing. This will cause the program to hold.

The parameter ZMAX and the program ZRANGE.

In order to calculate ZMAX also the artificial parameter EPS is used.
To circumvent this problem the program ZRANGE is written which is independent of PC or computer used.

The subroutines ANGSIZ and BNGSIZ

In order to test ANGSIZ and BNGSIZ the parameter Zmax has to be greater than zero. This is only the case for World Model types 17, 18 and 19.
I did not succeed to calculate the output parameters: D12, D14, D34 and D32.
WMtype 18 and 19 are what is called bouncing models. I expect a different name for those models is cyclic. Roger Penrose is in favour of this model. The reason why those models are tested is not clear because they do not reflect the current accepted mainstream view. See For Example: No evidence of time before Big Bang

The subroutines LOWLVL and BSSTEP use the artificial parameter EPS. The meaning is not clear.

Created: 25 June 2012
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