Comments about "Intelligence" in Wikipedia

This document contains comments about the document "Intelligence" in Wikipedia
In the last paragraph I explain my own opinion.



The article starts with the following sentence.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including one's capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity and problem solving.
This is a definition about human capabilities in general, but not what "Intelligence" is and is not.
It can be more generally described as the ability to perceive information, and retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment.
The same comment.

1. History of the term

Intelligence derives from the Latin verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. A form of this verb, intellectus, became the medieval technical term for understanding, and a translation for the Greek philosophical term nous.
Also here the text is to general.

2 Definitions

From "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (1994):
A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do.
Also here no quantitative interpretation
From "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" (1995):
Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions.
Correct. Intelligence has to do with the difference between people.
Not all people are the same. Not all people have finally the same capabilities to solve problems. Some are more capable as others. That is a fact of life.
The emphasis on solving problems, that means with our mind, not with using your hands.

3. Human intelligence

Human intelligence is the intellectual capacity of humans, which is characterized by perception, consciousness, self-awareness, and volition. Intelligence enables humans to remember descriptions of things and use those descriptions in future behaviors. It is a cognitive process.
Again this is a definition with is true for all people.

4. In animals

Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have also attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition
What researchers should do, and I expect they do, is to investigate that not all animals are the same. That some animals are more intelligent than others. That some species can perform certain tasks better than others.

5. In plants

It has been argued that plants should also be classified as intelligent based on their ability to sense and model external and internal environments and adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly to ensure self-preservation and reproduction.
To call plants intelligent IMO is a misnomer.
Some plants are meat eaters, but that does not say that they are intelligent. It also does not say that the flies they eat are stupid.

6. Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (or AI) is both the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science which aims to create it, through "the study and design of intelligent agents" or "rational agents", where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximize its chances of success.
The problem is that all computer programs are created by human beings. The question is who is more intelligent: a human being or a computer program.
You can even go a step further: What is the IQ of a computer versus a human being?

7. Culture's influence on intelligence

Intelligence and culture are two very distinct terms. Intelligence can be defined as a person’s cognitive abilities to learn. It is also associated with school performance, IQ, logic, abstract thought, self-awareness, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
Why not write?:
Intelligence is defined as a person’s ability to learn.
This at least identifies that not all people are the same. The same with the concepts: school performance and IQ
Culture can be defined as a way of life that influences our views, experiences, and engagement with our lives and the world around us. It is shaped by the political, social, and environmental contexts in which we live.
It is true that culture influences us.
It is true that an indian living in a tropical forest has a hugh drawback, compared to an individual living in New York. Their cultures are completely different. However that is not the most important parameter that influences intelligence. It is education. It is the chance to visit a library.
Further on we read:
The second study conducted by Brooks-Gunn and colleagues (1996) looked at IQ score difference among black and white children and their home environment, birth weight, and financial situation. The main point was that maternal education influences this difference.
Exactly. An IQ score is not 100% reliable to measure intelligence, but it is good starting tool , specific to study the differences between human beings.
Researchers can not particularly assign intelligence to one culture over another.
This sound strange. People in mesopotamia, in ancient Iraq and Syria, were already considered very intelligent.
The same with the Inca's

8. See also

Following is a list with "Comments in Wikipedia" about related subjects


Intelligence means more than that people can use logic to make decissions. Intelligence has to do that some people are better to make decisions than others. Some people are more creative than others. It is this aspect that is missing in the Wikipedia document


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Created: 15 June 2016

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