## Program "Hubble": Hubble's Law with 3 Stars

### Introduction and Purpose

The purpose of the Quick Basic program "Hubble.bas" is to test the validity of Hubble's Laws.
The same issue is discussed in 7 questions: Hubble's Law
This zip file also contains the source file: hubble.bas
To see the listing of the program select: hubble.bas.htm

The same program is also available in Visual Basic 5.0 as "VB Hubble".

For all the details select: VB Hubble operation.htm

### Description and Operation

The simulation shows a binary system of two objects m1 and m2 which have the same mass and a third object m3 which has a small mass. The angle between the two objects is called alpha
Starting condition for the third object is below the escape velocity at a fixed distance towards the right.

In the standard configuration the program performs 18 simulations with alpha going from 0 to 180 in increments of 10 degrees.

When the program starts you get the following 4 questions:

1. Alpha start angle ?. This is the original angle between the m1 and m2.
Enter 0
2. Alpha end angle ?. This is the final angle between the m1 and m2.
Enter 180
3. delta t between 0.001 and 0.01 ? This is the step size of the simulation
Enter 0.01
4. Are the input parameters okay "Y" or "N" ? If you are not satisfied enter N key
Enter Y key.
After this the simulations starts and the display slowly builds up, one after an other.

### Reflection

Hubble's Law states that there is a lineair relation between the speed of an object and the distance of that object.
What this demonstration shows that an object can be ejected from a binary system within a range of values. This is in conflict with Hubble's Law.
The demonstration is valid for bainary stars, binary Black Holes but also for complete galaxies. That means stars can be ejected from the center of our galaxy, which harbours a BH with almost any speed.

For an critical evaluation of Hubble's Law read:

For an simulation in Excel: Excel Program: Bigbang3.XLS

### Feedback

None

Original: 3 March 1996 Modified: 13 March 2000
Modified: 27 November 2009
modified: 22 March 2010
Modified: 19 Februari 2016